Raipur is the Capital of Chhattisgarh, not just in
terms of Politics, or not in terms of technical and infra-structural
development, but also in terms of its rich art and culture and heritage, its
archeology nearby. Raipur, being district has four blocks, where one of the
blocks is Arang. Arang, the block head quarter, is a small town, but possess
many worthseeing ancient temple and is famous as the “temple town of Chhattisgarh”.
Picture: Bhaand Dewal Jain Temple
Where and How to reach?
36 kms to the east of Raipur (along the Mahasamund
road, in NH-06) lies the beautiful town of Arang. The nearest airport is Raipur.
This place is approachable throughout the year. For Lodging and boarding,
Raipur can be a nearest suitable destination.
Picture: Location Map of Arang
Source: Maps of India
Mythological and Historical Importance:
This place was once under the Kingdom of a kind, noble,
faithful, generous, worthy ruler, King Mordhwaj (once the ruler of Ratanpur
kingdom), who was believed to have ruled over this region, during the period of
“Mahabharata”. History says that all the area occupied by his reign, shows
equal importance to Jaina, Vaishnava and Shakt temples.
Much of the area in the Central Chhattisgarh was
once the kingdom of Great Kalchuris, who were great admirers of Art, Sculpture
and Culture. They ruled Central Chhattisgarh during 1000-1741 A.D. They
happened to have given equal importance to all the religions of their reign and
made countless temples all over many parts of Central Chhattisgarh.
Believed as the land of Great King Mordhwaj, Arang
is the home of some of the most wonderful temples of Central Chhattisgarh
namely - Bhand Dewal Jain Temple, Mahamaya Temple, Mahadev temple, Shri
Bageshwar Nath Mahadev Temple, Goddess Kamaksha temple, Shri Panchmehwar
Pipaleshwar Mahadev Temple, Goddess Chandi Temple etc. People from all parts of
Central India visit this place because of these divine shrines. Therefore today
this place is called as temple-town of Chhattisgarh.
Dewal Jain Temple: This temple is believed
to have been built by Haihaya Dynasty during 9th Century A.D. Dedicated
to Jain Tirthankaras (Jain Gods), this temple shows three beautiful statues of
Jain Tirthankaras, with beautiful carvings inside and outside of the temple.
Built in the form of Nagar style of temple formation, this temple shows beautiful
carvings of Yaksh-yakshinis, Gods and Goddess & erotic couple carvings.
Picture: Bhand Dewal Jain Temple
temple: This temple is near
Goddess Samya Mata temple and devoted to Goddess Durga. It is built under the
roots of a Banyan tree; as told by the locals, earlier the former patron priest
of this place got a dream by the almighty Goddess Durga to search this place,
dig it, and find an ancient statue, Hence this temple is formed.
Picture: Chandi Mata Temple
Panchmeshwar Pipaleshwar Mahadev Temple: It
is believed that it is built under the trunk part of a Pipal tree, where as
told, earlier the former patron priest of this place got a dream by the
almighty Lord Shankar to search this place, dig it, and find an ancient Shiv
Lingam, Hence this temple is formed.
Picture: Pachmeshwar Pipaleshwar Temple
Temple: This temple is
actually devoted to the almighty Goddess Durga as Mata Chandi. The centrally
placed statue has been placed by the excavation done near the temple region
itself. Other than this temple is a divine abode of Lord Vishnu and Jain Lord
Aadinath Shri Rishabdevji. All these statues have been recovered by the
excavation done in the Arang area.
Picture: Chandi Mata Temple
Nath Mahadev Temple: This temple too
is an ancient temple but for the sake of its conservation, Government and Local
Bodies has renovated this shrine to a new temple. Built in Nagara style of
temple formation, this temple is devoted to Lord Shiva. Just below right side near
the entrance gate of this temple, one can observe many archeological ruins like
broken statue of Nandi, Lord Vishnu and Garuda. The Courtyard of this temple
shows an example of roof like boundary formation which too is used for the
visitors and priests at the time of Yagyas.
Picture: Bageshwar Temple
is a worthseeing place very near to the capital city of Chhattisgarh, Raipur.
If you people really wanna visit some aesthetic religious place near Raipur….do
There are four blocks in the district of Dantewada, out of which the most unexplored block is Katekalyan. But, on the contrary, next to Kuwakonda, it is the most mineral rich block of Dantewada district. The respective block is covered by lush green forest, huge mountain ranges, enchanting valleys and some of the most beautiful waterfalls. One such waterfall is Dudma Jhodi waterfall.
Where and How to reach?
This marvel is located on the bank of Dumam river which is also called as Dankini river. This waterfall is situated at the side of state highway which goes from Katekalyan to Bade-Gudra via Parcheli. This waterfall is nearly 38 kms away from Dantewada and 124 kms away from Jagdalpur via Dantewada and nearly 424 kms away from State Capital, Raipur. The nearest railway station is Dantewada and Bacheli. The nearest airport is Jagdalpur and Raipur.
(c) Maps Of India
As this is a seasonal waterfall which actually originates from a brook called Dudma Jhodi which is a tributary of Dumam river, it is beat advisable to visit it during the winters.
Falling from a height of 15 feet, Dudma jhodi waterfall is a worth seeing place and can be a good picnic spot for the interested tourists also. As the height is quite adorable and the slope is moderate with a step like formation, the brook gives a beautiful show of a small cascade, which a truly enjoyable from top to bottom. Local people love to come and spend their leisure time here, bathing and enjoying with their near and dear ones.
If you really wanna enjoy some of the most virgin places of Chhattisgarh, Do come to Dantewada. And If you really wanna reveal some of the most deep mysteries of Dantewada itself, Do visit Katekalyan…..and if you really wanna a virgin waterfall…..Do visit Dudma Jhodi waterfall.
Dantewada is a place of spirituality, it’s a place of hyms, it’s a place of divine temples…..but wait…this is just the spiritual part of Dantewada. Here’s a lot more to be revealed out. Ever heard of some untrodden tracks, some virgin mountains, some unseen waterfalls in Bastar division, there will be only one name, Katekalyan block of Dantewada district.
Nature has hidden so much in this virgin area that one has to keep whole month to visit and find such untrodden paths, such peculiar mysteries. One such mystery is Toyer waterfall.
Where and how to reach?
Toyer waterfall is approachable throughout the year as this area is very near to the State Highway joining Jagdalpur to Dantewada from Darbha road via Katekalyan. Just 12 kms to Katekalyan towards Darbha road, this marvel is located near to the village border of Nadenar and Toynar villages of Katekalyan block of Dantewada.
This area actually comes under Darbha block of District Bastar, but as this place is very near to Block Head Quarter Katekalyan, local people presumes it to be a part of Dantewada district.
As a tourist reaches closer to this fall, the first view itself makes him spellbound, as the fall divides itself in two parts, the upper part which is having a height of 7 to 10 feet with a gentle slope of 10-15 degree, followed by the later one which possesses a height of 30-35 feet with a moderate slope of 30-40 degree. One should take care while traversing down as the bank walls of Toyer nala also contains blue-green algae.
This place hides many more interesting features on its laps as the upper part of the northern side of bank possesses a cave remarked as an abode of Lord Shiva and contains many Shiv-lingas inside and near around this cave-shrine.
Toynar Village is famous for this waterfall and cave, as at the time of Maha-Shivratri, this area gets flooded by the devotees in the form of a big mela.
On the whole, this place is a “silent killer” and nobody wants to miss the chance to be in the laps of a meditating kind of pure natural environment.
Bastar is the king of adventures, king of thrill in Chhattisgarh. Bastar is the home of some of the most exotic destinations of Central India and can provide some of the most virgin endeavours on most spellbinding terrains of Central India, one such place is Dandak Cave which comes in the kotumsar sub-range of forest at Kanger Valley National Park.
Pic showing the guide and Mr. Ashish Gadpale standing just infront of cave mouth
Figure showing textbook example of Cave Pop-corn
Where and How to reach?
Dandak Cave comes in the Kanger Valley National Park area, whose entrance(Kanger Valley barrier) is nearly 26 kms from Divisional Head Quarter Jagdalpur on Jagdalpur-Hyderabad Highway (NH-221). Its nealy 326 kms from C.G State capital Raipur, nearly 326 kms from Vishakapatnam. The nearest railway station is Jagdalpur. The nearest airport is Raipur. Jagdalpur is one of the premium destinations for tourists as it offers exciting tour packages for tourists all round Central India. There are numerous luxurious hotels and motels in Jagdalpur which provide such packages.
Way to Kanger Valley
Being in Dandak Cave:
Dandak is one of the most well-maintained cave of Kanger Valley National Park, as the curious tourist will surely get the textbook examples of every cavern structures. Here just after the cave we can see the helictites, followed by the classic examples of soda straws on the opposite wall of helictite.
Going few feets down, the narrow entrance opens into a large chamber showing exotic examples of flowstones in a couple of dripstones. This chamber is as big as it can hold more than 500 tourists at a single span of time. On one of the adjacent wall nearby, we can see a very very narrow entrance for the second chamber series of cave.
Figure showing developed Stalagmite
Pic showing broken Stalactite (behind the author)
Way to Second chamber series
The second chamber series of this cave has ultimate narrow entrance but opens into a big room performing a beautiful play of stalactites, stalagmites and few rare textbook examples of cave popcorns and soda straws with a central large stalagmite and stalactite. Here this stalagmite seems like to have grown from a 70 feet deep sinkhole which is just next to this central stalagmite. Going further forward,we can see many small chambers, some are inter-connected while some possess dead ends, but on the whole all the chambers were having dead end after few feet.
Addition to its Importance:
This cave is one of the favourite spot for researchers as this cave provides a perfect climate for researchers to read the palaeo and present climate on the basis of living fauna and fossils. Dr. Jayant Biswas, Founder and President of "National Cave Research and Protection Organization, India" has published a lot of research papers some of which has been published in some of the most reputed publishing houses of world like Speleologija(1) e.t.c. He has worked a lot for cave-biology. On the basis of fauna found here, he has named cave fauna as cavernicoles (cave organisms) and divided them into three types : (A) Troglobites: Species which live wholly and permanently in the dark zone of caves. Mostly are albinic because camouflage colouring is of no use.
(B) Troglophiles: Species which live permanently in the dark zone, some of which can live in a suitable habitat away from the cave. (C) Trogloxene: Species which visit or take shelter but do not complete their whole life cycle in caves. They go to the outer world periodically for some requirements, usually food. Further it can be divided as accidental trogloxene and habitual trogloxene. The affix terminology is sufficient to recongnize them.(2)
The cave has got its name after the division’s ancient name “Dandkaaranya”. Dandak was a demon who got cursed by a teacher (sage) of demons “Shankaracharya” and got his kingdom turned into dense forest within a fraction of time along with himself.
This cave is known for its most spectacular show of speleothems formations with some outstanding example of fauna which likes to live inside cave only. This phenomenon has given this cave special attention and preference among the researchers to deeply analyze the palaeo and current climate of the cave.
This cave proves to be one of the most promising cave for cave researchers and speleologists. And for young guns, this cave is an ideal example for reading textbook examples of cavern structures. Reference: (1) http://www.speleologija.hr/indija09/index.html (2) http://www.cave-biology.org/
There are three national parks in Chhattisgarh. Among these three,the most beautiful one is Kanger Valley National Park. Having spread up to 200 sq. km, the best part of this park is its geological formations. This park is the home of some of the most exotic, spellbound, virgin caves of Central India. This park is the home of one of the most mesmerizing natural habitat of crocodiles and tortoises. This park is the home of BHAINSA DARHA.
Fig: Bhainsa-Darhalake pic by: Mr. Mukesh Patel
Where and How to Reach?
Bhaina-Darha is approachable from two ways:
The first one is from Kailash Cave road i.e. after reaching Kailash Cave Barrier, we have to travel 29 kms more on a unmetalled road in order to reach Bhainsa-Darha. The metalled one straight away goes to Kailash Cave after 6 kms.
Figure showing way to Bhainsa-Darha from Chainkoor Barrier(Kailash Cave Barrier)
The second way is from Gupteshwar i.e. from Jagdalpur to Gupteshwar(NH-30 route) it covers nearly 57 kms. From Gupteshwar, again you have to be in Machkote forest road itself and cover 12 kms more to
Koleng Sub-range of forest in order to reach Bhainsa-Darha.
Picture showing the location of Bhainsa-Darha (Extreme South-East) Courtsey: www.mapsofindia.com
For the ease of tourist, there are a lot of hotels in Jagdalpur providing cozy lodging and boarding and can provide some of the most exciting tourist packages all over in Central India. In addition to this, Govt. has also established motels and rest houses of CG Tourism Board and District Forest Department in the Head Quarter of Bastar.
The best time to visit this marvel is during winters to the start of summers.
Being at Bhainsa-Darha……
Having an extent up to 4 hectare of land on the Kanger River, Bhainsa-Darha is actually a natural lake famous as the natural habitat of Crocodiles and tortoises in Chhattisgarh. The area comes under the Koleng sub-range of forest which comes in between extent of Machkote range of forest and Kanger Valley National Park.
Being at Bhainsa-Darha feels like heaven. It’s like paradise appeared on earth. The whole place is covered by lush green forest of bamboo, where the inclination and bending of the tall bamboo tress over the lake, seems like the whole creation is bowing their head on the feet of GOD for creating such marvel. After covering a large distance and travelling all over valley,
Kanger River slows down before reaching Bhainsa-Darha. Here the water appears very calm and quite with hardly any movement of wild creatures nearby. But really if you wanna see them alive with a lot of moves, do take little amount of fish or ducks/gooses in order to offer as prey. Then only you will find the best moments of your journey and destination.
The known depth of this lake is 20 meters, so it is not advisable to go down and have some water sports. After covering some distance more, the beautiful Kanger River merges to river Shabari (Kolab) and puts an end of the journey of this beautiful valley.
As this place, Bhainsa-Darha, comes between Machkote range of Forest and Kanger Valley Natinal Park, you can make one combined package and can enjoy the whole lush green dense forest beauty of Bastar.
Gupteshwar – A Cave temple (A blog by Jitendra Nakka)
Chhattisgarh is full of surprises, and so the state of Orissa too. Chhattisgarh shares many relations with Orissa, whether it may be of geographical extent, geological extent, mineralogical extent, whether may be of art and culture, whether may be of sculpture and temples, whether may be of customs and traditions, lot of things are mutual in them. Even they share some common tourist places also. One such common but one of the most exotic tourist place of Chhattisgarh and Orissa is Gupteshwar.
Gupteshwar- The Abode of Lord Shiva
Where and How to Reach?
Gupteshwar is approachable from two ways:
(1) NH-30: Jagdalpur lies on the middle of Raipur-Vishakapatnam Highway. From Jagdalpur, we have to travel upto 22 kms more to reach the village called Dhanpunji(which is the last village of Chhattisgarh border). From Dhanpunji, there is a well-made metalled road(pakka road) which last upto railway crossing, after which our journey continues with unmetalled road(kachcha road) upto 23 kms more, reaching a beautiful confluence of Machkote-Tiriya Sangam. After reaching Machkote, we have to travel on a dozen of kilometers more to reach our final destination near the bank of Shabari river called Gupteshwar.
Figure showing location of Gupteshwar(South-East of Map)
Figure showing the exotic Machkote range of Forest(Bastar, Chhattisgarh)
(2) Jeypore Road: Another way to this marvel comes from Jeypore road. From Jeypore, this exotic site is nearly 55 kms away to the bank of Shabari river(also called as Kolab river in Orissa). Gupteshwar is a premium tourist site which lies in the Koraput District of Orissa. As for the ease of tourists, there is one comfortable rest house in Gupteshwar, with a good boarding and lodging. As OSRTC is doing excellent work in Orissa, reaching each and every corners of the state, we can enjoy our tour from state bus service also. If at all, any tourist opts Jagdalpur as a boarding centre by road (i.e. by NH), this place is nearly 120 km from Jagdalpur. Infact Jagdalpur is the most suitable and premium boarding and lodging destination for visiting any place nearby. For the ease of tourist, there are a lot of exotic hotels & motels providing cozy boarding and some great tourist packages all over Central and South-East India.
Salient Features of Gupteshwar:
Gupteshwar is actually a cave-shrine, an abode of Lord Shiva. But if you wanna make it upto here from Jagdalpur, you have to cover the lush green and dense forest of Machkote range of Forest of Bastar division of Chhattisgarh. Along the whole way, you can see a lot of flora and fauna, which will make your journey more thrilling at the time of returning back. Gupteshwar is actually a combination of different scenic spots
where the bank of Shabari(Kolab) river from either of the sides, the waterfall along the flow and the cave temple are most worth seeing.
Figure showing the exotic lush green forest of Machkote Range(Bastar, Chhhattisgarh)
After reaching Gupteshwar from Machkote, we can see the gigantic stromatolitic dolomites covering the whole path of river flow. As the area is a kind of undulating site, there is a high gradient of river flow, cutting down the stromatolitic dolomite rocks and creating crocodile-skin weathering on their surface. Due to the display of this typical weathering on the rocks from both the banks, this place has got a fierce look and appears difficult to cross the river. But this is just a prejudice of a tourist; the rocks are spaced near to each other with the help of which, one can cross the river and can reach the cave shrine.After the bank, we have to walk over nearly 200 feet more to reach the market line of the place. Actually just in front of the temple, there are few small shops/hotels from where you can take materials of your interest and fill your appetite.
Figure showing the extent of Stromatolitic Dolomite rock at the bank of river Shabari(Kolab)
Just to the right of this market, lies the a road junction, from where going straight will lead to cave temple of
Gupteshwar and taking right will lead to the cave series of Gupteshwar. After reaching the front gate of Temple, you have to climb up near around 300 stairs to reach the entrance of this cave. The stairs after entrance takes you down to the centrally placed Shivling of near about 1.5m high.
Fig: Gupteshwar Temple
Figure showing the Centrally Placed Shivling at Gupteshwar Cave Temple
Figure showing the growth of Stalactites on the inner chambers of Gupteshwar temple
One more way to the left of this shivling leads to the next chambers of this cave which add more beauty to this worth seeing cave shrine. The next chamber is comparatively larger than the adjacent chambers nearby. After walking nearly more than 20 feet, the slope of this chamber increases gradually with a sharp, wet and muddy surface leads you to a subordinate chamber having a dead end on its other end. The whole cave displays a beautiful play of stalactites and stalagmites somewhere developed, somewhere budding. But this is not the end of your destination, your journey; you have to walk back to the junction to reach the actual cave series of Gupteshwar.
Here, there are there are two caves, one of which has a narrow entrance, but, is very high in altitude. The later one is wider in comparison to the former one. The later cave is very worth seeing but lacks in proper display of stalactites and stalagmites. The central chamber of this cave leads to a minor chamber which is very small, nearly of 12feets of length, and 2 meters of height and width and leads to a dead end.
Figure showing the mouth of one cave of the Cave series of Gupteshwar
Figure showing the mouth of one cave of the Cave series of Guteshwar
Mythological and Religious Importance:
This place holds much importance for Hindu devotees, as this place is a divine shrine and abode of Lord Shiva. This place faces a gigantic crowd of devotees, worshippers and followers at the time of “Maha-Shiv Ratri”. People from all part of India reach here to bow their heads and receive blessings from Lord Shiva, the almighty.
Figure showing followers moving ahead to Gupteshwar
Fig: Followers crossing river Kolab
Figure showing the scenic view of bank of river Shabari at Gupteshwar
Mythologically, it is believed that Gupteshwar means “hidden GOD”. It is believed that Lord Ram, during his exile of 14 years reached Dandakaaranya forest and first found this shivling hidden in this cave. He was the first person to worship on this cave. The nearby mountain is called as “Ramgiri”. Kalidasa in his famous creation “Meghadoot” has also depicted the beauty of this beautiful mountain of Ramgiri.
This place is one of the most important pilgrim of South-East Central India and shares equal importance from both Orissa and Chhattisgarh and one of the most important tourist and study site for researchers (speleologists).
Bastar, being a plateau region, serves as the home
of some of the most incredibly beautiful valleys namely Bastarnaar Valley,
Darbha valley, Keshkaal valley e.t.c. Among these, one of the most beautiful valleys
is Kanger Valley National Park. This park is one of the most awaited projects
of state of Chhattisgarh, as the Govt. has given a proposal to Central Govt. to
make this site as a “Bio-Diversity Heritage site”. It is not just because here
we have some of the rarest species of flora and fauna, but because, here we
have some of the most exotic natural caves. Although forest department and
local people have found more than a half dozen of caves, but for general
tourist, only three caves are opened for the sake of security of people. Forest
department admits its responsibility to open other caves soon. These three
caves are Dandak Cave, Kutumsar Cave, Kailash Cave. Next to Kutumsar Cave, the
most desirable cave is Kailash Gufa(means
Figure showing Stalactites
Where and how to reach?
Kailash Cave is reachable from two ways. The first
one is NH-16(Jagdalpur-Hyderabad Highway).
Just after 28km on NH-16, there is a check-post of Forest department for the
entrance of Kanger Valley National Park. After paying nominal charges, one can
enter this National Park. After some distance, we can get one guest house of
Kanger valley National park. From there, just after travelling 3kms to the way
of famous Kutumsar caves, to the left of it, there lies a 12km long road which
directly takes us to Koleng forest range no.75. There lies a series of small
hills. Among one of this hill, there lies the beautiful Kailash Cave.
Fig: Way to Kailash Caves (last 6 kilometers)
The second way or the alternate way is the route
from Jagdalpur to Netanaar via Sargipaal, Jaatam, Nangur, kawaali, e.t.c. Right
at the entrance barrier of kailash caves (which
is around 5km away from the cave),
we can see one rest house where we can lose our fatigue for a while. Even below
the hill where cave is located, we have the facility of rest and water. But as
Jagdalpur is the nearest city, you have to get your food and other accessories
from Jagdalpur itself.
Fig: Way to Kailash Caves (last 6 kilometers)
Kailash Cave came into light from 1993, whereas the
people say that the local villagers came to know about it very earlier. The
actual credit for revealing this cave goes to Forest guard – Sonsay, Rajaram
Shivhare, watchman Sitaram, Gang-Superviser Jhaduram Yadav and Range officer
Roshan Lal Sahu. Due to dusk, they missed to see it on 18 March 1993, but
later, they came again on the site on 22 March, and found this marvel. As they
went inside, they got fantasized by a entire world of conical karst structures,
and seeing some of the structures as Shivling, they named it as “Kailash Gufa(means cave)”.
Figure showing the entrance mouth of Kailash Cave
From land surface, Kailash cave is formed nearly 40m
above towards the hill. Uptill now, the known length of the cave is nearly
1000ft and the depth of the cave is 120ft. Bending down and entering to a
narrow entrance, you can see some stairs made by forest department, for the
ease of tourists. Just after entering inside, in the very beginning, before stepping
down, I noticed development of some very young buds of stalactites.
Just after entering 100ft down, we can start seeing budding
structures of Stalactites and Stalagmites.
Figure showing stalactites and stalagmites
These Stalactites and Stalagmites are generally
formed in caverns(a geological term used
for caves). As water drips from the roof of a cavern, evaporation leaves a
small deposit of Calcium Carbonate (Calcite)
behind. Gradually a cone shaped pillar of calcium-carbonate, hanging from the
cavern roof develops. Such a deposit is called “stalactite”. Similar deposit
also grows from the floors of the caverns where the limewater drops. Such
inverted conical-pillar like structure is called “stalagmite”. When a
stalactite and a stalagmite meet, a “column” is formed called “dripstone”.
Figure showing Stalagmites
If you can
see some broken pieces of a stalactite, you can observe that sometimes in the
cavities of rocks, the ground water deposits crystals of quartz, calcite or
other minerals. This respective deposit is called “Geode” and structure is
called Geode structure.
Going few meters ahead, we can observe the change in
shape and size of the cavern as the chamber turns into 25 ft wide and 35 ft
long hall, where one can observe greater colonies of budding and developed
structures of stalactites and stalagmites.
Figure showing Stalagmites
Just after few meters, it seems like we have came to
final chamber, which can be assumed to be 135ft long, 100ft wide and 25ft high.
For a tourist coming such a place for the first time, seems like lost yourself
in the world of fantasy….a complete new world…something like a dream which came
true.The whitish conical structures
play such a magic that nobody can save himself, from getting lost in this dream
After coming out, people share their experience
shouting, screaming, cherishing. Some people may call those conical structures
as “Jhumar”, some people may call those dripstones as “elephant nose”, and some
may call it as “Bhim ki Gada”. Numerous reactions, but only one wish,-“ I just
love it…If ever I’ll get a chance, I’ll come back here again and again.
For the promotion of this valley, Forest
department has made watch tower nearby this cave in order to enjoy the broad
view of the valley side. Nearby one lake-like reservoir is there, which is
called as “Kailash Lake”. Adding to the beauty of this valley, Bhainsa-Darha Crocodile
Lake is also worth-seeing site.
A part of this citation has been inspired by Dr. Suresh Tiwari’s book- “Bastar-
Paryatan, Itihaas aur Sanskriti “